- U -
Unfair labor practice - Actions by the employer which interfere with, restrain, coerce, or threaten employees with respect to their rights.
Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) - A uniform law governing commercial transactions. The U.C.C. has been adopted by all states except Louisiana.
Uniform Laws - Annotated Annotated uniform and model acts approved by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws.
Unilateral contract - An agreement by which one undertakes an express performance without receiving any express promise of performance from the other.
Union - An organization of workers formed for the purpose of collective bargaining.
United States Attorney - A federal district attorney appointed by the President to prosecute for all offenses committed against the United States; to prosecute or defend for the government all civil actions in which it is concerned and perform all duties of the district to which he/she is assigned.
United States Bankruptcy Court - The judicial body which hears matters pertaining to bankruptcy and reorganization.
United States Court of Appeals - Courts which hear appeals from federal district courts, bankruptcy courts, and tax courts.
United States Court of Claims - Court which hears actions against the U.S. Government.
United States Court of Military Appeals - Court which hears appeals from court marshal decisions .
United States Court of Customs & Patent Appeals - Court which hears appeals from all U.S. customs courts.
United States Court of International Trade - Court which hears cases concerning federal tariff laws.
United States District Courts - Courts which try both criminal and civil actions and admiralty cases.
United States Magistrate Judge - Courts given authority by 28 U.S.C. s 636. This court hears all preliminary criminal matters, but does not conduct felony trials, and any pretrial civil matters referred by the district court. If all parties consent, criminal misdemeanor and civil trials can be heard by this court.
United States Marshal's Service - Agency which serves civil and criminal process in federal courts.
United States Postal Service - The federal office which provides mail delivery to individuals and businesses within the United States.
United States Reports - Publication of court decisions of the United States Supreme Court.
United States Supreme Court - The highest court in the land, established by U.S. Constitution.
Unlawful detainer - A detention of real estate without the consent of the owner or other person entitled to its possession.
Unliquidated debt - Remaining not determined; unassessed or unsettled; in dispute as to the proper amount.
Unsecured debts -- In bankruptcy, debts such as open accounts at department stores for which the debtor has not pledged collateral to guarantee payment.
Urban - A city or town.
Usury - Extraction of interest on a loan above the maximum rate permitted by statute.
- V -
Vacate - To set aside.
Venire - A writ summoning persons to court to act as jurors. (See venire facias in Foreign Words Glossary.)
Venue - Authority of a court to hear a matter based on geographical location.
Verdict - A conclusion, as to fact or law, that forms the basis for the court's judgment. (See directed verdict.)
Veterans' Administration (VA) - The federal agency which administers a system of benefits for veterans and their dependents.
Visa - An official endorsement on a document or passport denoting that the bearer may proceed.
Void - Invalid; a void agreement is one for which there is no remedy.
Voidable - Capable of being declared invalid; a voidable contract is one where a person may avoid his obligation, as a contract between an adult and a minor.
Voir dire - The preliminary examination made in court of a witness or juror to determine his competency or interest in a matter. Literally, to speak the truth.
Voluntary bankruptcy - A proceeding by which a debtor voluntarily asks for a discharge of his debts under the Bankruptcy Code.