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 - J -

Joint and several liability - A legal doctrine that makes each of the parties who are responsible for an injury, liable for all the damages awarded in a lawsuit if the other parties responsible cannot pay. 

Joint tenancy - A form of legal co-ownership of property (also known as survivorship). At the death of one co-owner, the surviving co-owner becomes sole owner of the property. Tenancy by the entirety is a special form of joint tenancy between a husband and wife.

Judge - A presiding officer of the court.

Judgment - The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the rights and claims of parties to an action or suit submitted to the court for determination. (See also summary judgment.)

Judgment debtor - One who owes money as a result of a judgment in favor of a creditor.

Judicial lien - A lien obtained by judgment or other judicial process against a debtor.

Judicial review - The authority of a court to review the official actions of other branches of government. Also, the authority to declare unconstitutional the actions of other branches.

Judiciary - The branch of government invested with judicial power to interpret and apply the law; the court system; the body of judges; then bench.

Jurat - Certificate of person and officer before whom a writing is sworn to.

Jurisdiction - The power or authority of a court to hear and try a case; the geographic area in which a court has power or the types of cases it has power to hear.

Jurisprudence- The study of law and the structure of the legal system.

Jury - A certain number of men and women selected according to law and sworn to try a question of fact or indict a person for public offense.

Jury Administrator - The court officer responsible for choosing the panel of persons to serve as potential jurors for a particular court term.

Justiciable - Issues and claims capable of being properly examined in court.

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