Senior Mag Home

Search

Elder Law

Assisted Living Senior Residence & Care

Senior Home Care & Healthcare Agencies

Canadian Pharmacies

Senior Health

Medical Glossaries

Personal Growth

Senior Money

State/Local Svcs

Wisdom 'n Humor

Computer Corner

Senior Travel

Senior Resources 
More Resources

About Senior Mag
 

 

 

 

Cancer Glossary - I

ICI 182780  
A drug that blocks estrogen activity in the body and is used in the therapy of estrogen-dependent tumors such as breast cancer.
ICI D1694  
An anticancer drug that inhibits tumor cells from multiplying by interfering with cells' ability to make DNA. Also called raltitrexed.
idarubicin  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called 4-demethoxydaunorubicin.
IDEC-In2B8  
A radiolabeled antibody that is being studied in cancer treatment.
IDEC-Y2B8 monoclonal antibody  
An anticancer drug that is a combination of a monoclonal antibody and a radioisotope (yttrium-90). Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells. Also called yttrium Y90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.
idiopathic  
Describes a disease of unknown cause.
idiopathic myelofibrosis  
A progressive disease in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue and is unable to produce red blood cells; the cause is unknown.
idoxifene  
A drug that blocks the effects of estrogen.
idoxuridine  
A drug that reduces the risk of cancer cell growth by interfering with the cells' DNA.
ifosfamide  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.
IL-1-alfa  
Interleukin-1-alfa. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's response to infection and disease). IL-1- alfa stimulates the growth and action of immune system cells that fight disease. IL-1-alfa is normally produced by the body, but it can also be made in the laboratory.
IL-11  
Interleukin-11. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that stimulates immune response and may reduce toxicity to the gastrointestinal system resulting from cancer therapy. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases. Also called oprelvekin.
IL-12  
Interleukin-12. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
IL-2  
Interleukin-2. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. These substances are normally produced by the body. Aldesleukin is IL-2 that is made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
IL-3  
Interleukin-3. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
IL-4  
Interleukin-4. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
IL-6  
Interleukin-6. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease). These substances are normally produced by the body, but they can also be made in the laboratory.
ileostomy  (il-ee-AHS-toe-mee)
An opening into the ileum, part of the small intestine, from the outside of the body. An ileostomy provides a new path for waste material to leave the body after part of the intestine has been removed.
ILX-295501  
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug. It belongs to the family of drugs called diarylsulfonylureas.
ILX23-7553  
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug.
IM  
Intramuscular. Within or into muscle.
IM-862  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
imagery  
A technique in which the person focuses on positive images in his or her mind.
imaging  
Tests that produce pictures of areas inside the body.
imaging procedures  
Methods of producing pictures of areas inside the body.
imatinib mesylate  
A drug that is being studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of certain cancers. It interferes with a portion of the protein produced by the bcr/abl oncogene. Also called STI571.
imipenem  
An antibiotic drug used to treat severe or very resistant infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called carbapenems.
immune adjuvant  
A drug that stimulates the immune system to respond to disease.
immune function  
Production and action of cells that fight disease or infection.
immune response  
The activity of the immune system against foreign substances (antigens).
immune system  (im-YOON)
The complex group of organs and cells that defends the body against infection or disease.
immune system tolerance  
The failure of the immune system to respond to an antigen that previously caused an immune response.
immunization  
A technique used to cause an immune response that results in resistance to a specific disease, especially an infectious disease.
immunocompetence  
The ability to produce a normal immune response.
immunocompromised  
Having a weakened immune system caused by certain diseases or treatments.
immunodeficiency  
The decreased ability of the body to fight infection and disease.
immunodeficiency syndrome  
The inability of the body to produce an immune response.
immunoglobulin  
A protein that acts as an antibody.
immunological adjuvant  
A substance used to help boost the immune response to a vaccine so that less vaccine is needed.
immunology  
The study of the body's immune system.
immunoscintigraphy  
An imaging procedure in which antibodies labeled with radioactive substances are given to the person. A picture is taken of sites in the body where the antibody localizes.
immunosuppression  
Suppression of the body's immune system and its ability to fight infections or disease. Immunosuppression may be deliberately induced with drugs, as in preparation for bone marrow or other organ transplantation to prevent rejection of the donor tissue. It may also result from certain diseases such as AIDS or lymphoma or from anticancer drugs.
immunosuppressive  
Describes the ability to lower immune system responses.
immunosuppressive therapy  
Therapy used to decrease the body's immune response, such as drugs given to prevent transplant rejection.
immunotherapy  (IM-yoo-no-THER-a-pee)
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Also used to lessen side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Also called biological therapy, biotherapy, or biological response modifier (BRM) therapy.
immunotoxin  
An antibody linked to a toxic substance. Some immunotoxins can bind to cancer cells and kill them.
implant radiation  (ray-dee-AY-shun)
A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, internal radiation, or interstitial radiation.
implantable pump  
A small device installed under the skin to administer a steady dose of drugs.
impotent  (IM-po-tent)
Unable to have an erection adequate for sexual intercourse.
in situ cancer  
Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissue.
in vitro  
In the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).
in vivo  
In the body. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the laboratory).
incidence  
The number of new cases of a disease diagnosed each year.
incision  (in-SIH-zhun)
A cut made in the body to perform surgery.
incisional biopsy  (in-SI-zhun-al BY-op-see)
A surgical procedure in which a portion of a lump or suspicious area is removed for diagnosis. The tissue is then examined under a microscope.
incomplete Freund's adjuvant  
A drug used in vaccine therapy to stimulate the immune system.
incontinence  (in-KAHN-tih-nens)
Inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escape of stool from the rectum (fecal incontinence).
incubated  
Grown in the laboratory under controlled conditions. (For instance, white blood cells can be grown in special conditions so that they attack specific cancer cells when returned to the body.)
indinavir  
A drug that interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.
indium In 111 pentetreotide  
An anticancer drug belonging to a family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals.
indole-3-carbinol  
A substance that is being studied as a cancer prevention drug. It is found in cruciferous vegetables.
indolent  (IN-doe-lint)
A type of cancer that grows slowly.
indolent lymphoma  
Lymphomas that tend to grow and spread slowly, including chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and follicular small cleaved cell lymphoma. Also called low-grade lymphomas.
indomethacin  
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Indomethacin reduces pain, fever, swelling, and redness. It is also being used to reduce tumor-induced suppression of the immune system and to increase the effectiveness of anticancer drugs.
induction therapy  
Treatment designed to be used as a first step toward shrinking the cancer and in evaluating response to drugs and other agents. Induction therapy is followed by additional therapy to eliminate whatever cancer remains.
infection  
Invasion and multiplication of germs in the body. Infections can occur in any part of the body, and can be localized or systemic (spread throughout the body). The germs may be bacteria, viruses, yeast, or fungi. They can cause a fever and other problems, depending on the site of the infection. When the body's natural defense system is strong, it can often fight the germs and prevent infection. Cancer treatment can weaken the natural defense system.
inferior vena cava  
A large vein that empties into the heart. It carries blood from the legs and feet and from organs in the abdomen and pelvis.
infertility  
The inability to produce children.
infiltrating cancer  
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called invasive cancer.
infiltrating ductal carcinoma  
The most common type of invasive breast cancer. It starts in the cells that line the milk ducts in the breast, grows outside the ducts, and often spreads to the lymph nodes.
inflammation  
A response of redness, swelling, pain, and a feeling of heat in certain areas that is meant to protect tissues affected by injury or disease.
inflammatory bowel disease  
A general term that refers to the inflammation of the colon and rectum. Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
inflammatory breast cancer  
A type of breast cancer in which the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm. The skin of the breast may also show the pitted appearance called peau d'orange (like the skin of an orange). The redness and warmth occur because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin.
informed consent  
A process in which a person learns key facts about a clinical trial, including potential risks and benefits, before deciding whether or not to participate in a study. Informed consent continues throughout the trial.
infusion  
A method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called intravenous infusion.
ingestion  
Taking into the body by mouth
inguinal orchiectomy  (IN-gwin-al or-kee-EK-toe-mee)
An operation in which the testicle is removed through an incision in the groin.
inhalation  
In medicine, refers to the act of taking a substance into the body by breathing.
inherited  
Transmitted through genes that have been passed from parents to their offspring (children).
injection  
Use of a syringe and needle to push fluids or drugs into the body; often called a "shot."
inositol  
A type of sugar that differs from glucose (the chief source of energy for living organisms) in its chemical structure. Certain modified forms of inositol can be used by the body to transmit signals inside and between cells.
inositol hexaphosphate  
IP6. A substance that has been studied as a treatment for cancer. IP6 is found in large amounts in cereals and legumes. Also known as phytic acid.
insomnia  
Difficulty in going to sleep or getting enough sleep.
Institutional Review Board  
IRB. A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers at each health care facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to protect study participants. They review and must approve the action plan for every clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, does not involve undue risks, and includes safeguards for patients.
insulin  (IN-su-lin)
A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used by the body for energy.
interferon  (in-ter-FEER-on)
A biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease). Interferons interfere with the division of cancer cells and can slow tumor growth. There are several types of interferons, including interferon-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukin-1-alfa  
IL-1-alfa. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease). IL-1-alfa stimulates the growth and action of immune system cells that fight disease. IL-1-alfa is normally produced by the body, but it can also be made in the laboratory.
interleukin-11  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-11. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that stimulates immune response and may reduce toxicity to the gastrointestinal system resulting from cancer therapy. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases. Also called oprelvekin.
interleukin-12  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-12. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukin-2  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-2. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that stimulates the growth of certain disease-fighting blood cells in the immune system. These substances are normally produced by the body. Aldesleukin is IL-2 that is made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukin-3  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-3. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukin-4  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-4. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukin-4 PE38KDEL cytotoxin  
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug. It belongs to the family of drugs called recombinant chimeric proteins. Also called NBI-3001.
interleukin-4 pe38kdel immunotoxin  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called immunotoxins.
interleukin-6  (in-ter-LOO-kin)
IL-6. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease). These substances are normally produced by the body, but they can also be made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
interleukins  (in-ter-LOO-kins)
Biological response modifiers (substances that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that help the immune system fight infection and cancer. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
intermediate-grade lymphomas  
Includes diffuse, small, cleaved cell lymphoma and diffuse, large, noncleaved cell lymphoma. These are more aggressive than low-grade lymphomas, but they respond better to anticancer drugs.
internal radiation  (ray-dee-AY-shun)
A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, implant radiation, or interstitial radiation therapy.
interstitial radiation therapy  
A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, internal radiation, or implant radiation.
intervention group  
The group receiving the study agent that is being tested in a clinical trial or clinical study.
intestinal  
Having to do with the intestines.
intestine  (in-TES-tin)
The long, tube-shaped organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion. There is both a large intestine and a small intestine. Also called the bowel.
intoplicine  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.
intracarotid infusion  
The introduction of fluids and drugs directly into the carotid artery, the main artery in the neck that carries blood from the heart to the brain.
intracavitary  
Within a cavity or space, such as the abdomen, pelvis, or chest.
intracavitary radiation  
A radioactive source (implant) placed in a body cavity such as the chest cavity or the vagina.
intracellular  
Inside a cell.
intracolonic  
Within the colon.
intracranial tumors  
Tumors that occur in the brain.
intradermal  
Within the dermis, which is the layer of skin below the epidermis (outermost layer).
intraductal carcinoma  (in-tra-DUK-tal kar-sin-O-ma)
Abnormal cells that involve only the lining of a duct. The cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. Also called ductal carcinoma in situ.
intraepithelial  (in-tra-eh-pih-THEEL-ee-ul)
Within the layer of cells that form the surface or lining of an organ.
intrahepatic  (in-tra-hep-AT-ik)
Within the liver.
intrahepatic bile ducts  
The bile ducts that pass through and drain bile from the liver.
intrahepatic infusion  
The delivery of anticancer drugs directly to the blood vessels of the liver.
intralesional  
Within a cancerous area, for example, within a tumor in the skin.
intramuscular  
IM. Within or into muscle.
intramuscular injection  
Injection into muscle.
intraoperative radiation therapy  
IORT. Radiation treatment aimed directly at a tumor during surgery.
intraperitoneal  (IN-tra-per-ih-toe-NEE-al)
IP. Within the peritoneal cavity (the area that contains the abdominal organs).
intraperitoneal chemotherapy  (IN-tra-per-ih-toe-NEE-al KEE-mo-THER-a-pee)
Treatment in which anticancer drugs are put directly into the abdominal cavity through a thin tube.
intraperitoneal infusion  
A method of delivering fluids and drugs directly into the abdominal cavity through a thin tube.
intraperitoneal radiation therapy  (in-tra-per-ih-toe-NEE-al ray-dee-A-shun)
Treatment in which a radioactive liquid is put directly into the abdomen through a thin tube.
intrathecal  (in-tra-THEE-kal)
Describes the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord. Drugs can be injected into the fluid or a sample of the fluid can be removed for testing.
intrathecal chemotherapy  (in-tra-THEE-kal KEE-mo-THER-a-pee)
Anticancer drugs that are injected into the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
intratumoral  
Within a tumor.
intravenous  (in-tra-VEE-nus)
IV. Within a blood vessel.
intravenous pyelogram  (in-tra-VEE-nus PYE-el-o-gram)
IVP. A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The x-rays are taken after a dye is injected into a blood vessel. The dye is concentrated in the urine, which outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder on the x-rays.
intravenous pyelography  (in-tra-VEE-nus pye-LAH-gra-fee)
IVP. X-ray study of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The x-rays are taken after a dye is injected into a blood vessel. The dye is concentrated in the urine, which outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder on the x-rays.
intraventricular infusion  
The delivery of a drug into a space within an organ.
intravesical  (in-tra-VES-ih-kal)
Within the bladder.
invasive cancer  
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called infiltrating cancer.
invasive cervical cancer  
Cancer that has spread from the surface of the cervix to tissue deeper in the cervix or to other parts of the body.
investigational  
Being studied; experimental.
investigator  
A researcher in a clinical trial or clinical study.
inviable  
Not able to survive.
iodine  
An element that is necessary for the body to make thyroid hormone. It is found in shellfish and iodized salt.
ionomycin  
An antibiotic drug used to treat infection.
IORT  
Intraoperative radiation therapy. Radiation treatment aimed directly at a tumor during surgery.
IP  
Intraperitoneal. Within the peritoneal cavity (the area that contains the abdominal organs).
IP6  
Inositol hexaphosphate. A substance that has been studied as a treatment for cancer. IP6 is found in large amounts in cereals and legumes. Also known as phytic acid.
ipsilateral  
Having to do with the same side of the body.
IRB  
Institutional Review Board. A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers at each health care facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to protect study participants. They review and must approve the action plan for every clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, does not involve undue risks, and includes safeguards for patients.
irinotecan  
An anticancer drug that belongs to a family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. It is a camptothecin analogue. Also called CPT 11.
irofulven  
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene.
irradiation  (ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun)
The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy) or from materials called radioisotopes. Radioisotopes produce radiation and can be placed in or near the tumor or in the area near cancer cells. This type of radiation treatment is called internal radiation therapy, implant radiation, interstitial radiation, or brachytherapy. Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Irradiation is also called radiation therapy, radiotherapy, and x-ray therapy.
irreversible toxicity  
Side effects that are caused by toxic substances or something harmful to the body and do not go away.
iseganan hydrochloride  
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by cancer therapy. It belongs to the family of drugs called synthetic protegrin analogs.
ISIS 2503  
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
ISIS 3521  
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
ISIS 5132  
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
islet cell cancer  (EYE-let)
Cancer arising from cells in the islets of Langerhans, which are found in the pancreas. Also called endocrine cancer.
islets of Langerhans  (EYE-lets of LANG-er-hanz)
Cells in the pancreas that produce hormones (including insulin).
isoflavones  
Plant compounds that are found in soy products. Soy isoflavones are being studied to see if they help prevent cancer.
isolated hepatic perfusion  
A procedure in which a catheter is placed into the artery that provides blood to the liver; another catheter is placed into the vein that takes blood away from the liver. This temporarily separates the liver's blood supply from blood circulating throughout the rest of the body and allows high doses of anticancer drugs to be directed to the liver only.
isolated limb perfusion  
A technique that may be used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet, and anticancer drugs are put directly into the blood of the limb. This allows the person to receive a high dose of drugs in the area where the cancer occurred. Also called limb perfusion.
isolated lung perfusion  
A surgical procedure during which the circulation of blood to the lungs is separated from the circulation of blood through the rest of the body, and a drug is delivered directly into the lung circulation. This allows a higher concentration of chemotherapy to reach tumors in the lungs.
isotretinoin  
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called retinoids. It is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. Also called 13-cis retinoic acid.
isthmus  (iz-muhs)
A narrow part inside the body that connects two larger structures.
itraconazole  
A drug used to prevent or treat fungal infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifungal agents.
IU  
International unit. A unit of measurement based on the International System of Units. This system defines units to measure length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, light intensity, and the amount of a substance. It can be used to express measurements of fat-soluble vitamins and some hormones, enzymes, and drugs.
IV  
Intravenous (in-tra-VEE-nus). Injected into a blood vessel.
IVP  
Intravenous pyelogram or intravenous pyelography (in-tra-VEE-nus PYE-el-o-gram or pye-LAH-gra-fee). A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The x-rays are taken after a dye is injected into a blood vessel. The dye is concentrated in the urine, which outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder on the x-rays.

 

Sponsored Links

Hot Links
Tax Help
Wheelchairs
Long Term Care Insurance
Glucose monitors 
Electric Scooters
Diabetic Supplies
Hearing Aids
Senior Travel
Walking canes
Structured Settlements

Visit MealCall.org to find Meals on Wheels & Congregate Meal 
locations

advertising

  SeniorMag